TOEFL ITP Reading 06a Answer

The Civil War created feverish manufacturing activity to supply critical material, especially in the North.
Perang Sipil menciptakan kegiatan manufakturing yang aktif untuk menyediakan bahan penting, terutama di wilayah Utara.

When the fighting stopped, the stage was set for dramatic economic growth.
Ketika pertempuran berhenti, fondasi untuk pertumbuhan ekonomi yang dramatis telah siap.

Wartime taxes on production vanished, and the few taxes that remained leaned heavily on real estate, not on business.
Pajak perang untuk proses produksi menghilang, dan beberapa pajak yang tersisa cendering ke real estate, bukan pada usaha.

The population flow from farm to city increased, and the labor force it provided was buttressed by millions of newly arrived immigrants willing to work for low wages in the mills of the North and on the railroad crews of the Midwest and West.
Aliran populasi dari lahan pertanian ke kota meningkat, dan tenaga kerja yang disediakan didukung oleh jutaan imigran yang baru tiba yang bersedia bekerja untuk upah rendah di pabrik di kawasan Utara dan sebagai buruh perkeretaapian di wilayah Barat Tengah dan Barat.

Government was nothing if not accommodating.
Pemerintah mengakomodasi proses ini.

It established tariff barriers, provided loans and grants to build a transcontinental railroad, and assumed a studied posture of nonintervention in private enterprise.
Ia menciptakan hambatan tarif, menyediakan pinjaman dan dana hibah untuk membangun rel kereta api lintas benua dan mengambil posisi non-intervensi dalam usaha swasta.

The social Darwinism of British philosopher Herbert Spencer and American economist William Graham Summer prevailed.
Teori Darwinisme sosial dari filsuf Inggris Herbert Spencer dan ekonom Amerika Willam Graham Summer menang.

The theory was that business, if left to its own devices, would eliminate the weak and nurture the strong.
Teori itu menyebutkan bahwa bisnis, jika dibiarkan sendiri, akan mengeliminasi yang lemah dan mengembangkan yang kuat.

But as business expanded, rivalry heated up.
Tapi ketika bisnis berkembang, persaingan memanas.

In the 1880’s, five railroads operating between New York and Chicago were vying for traffic, and two more were under construction.
Di tahun 1880-an, lima jalur kereta api yang beroperasi antara New York dan Chicago mengincar lalu lintas dan dua lagi sedang dalam pembangunan.

As a result of the battle, the fare between the cities decreased to $1.
Sebagai hasil persaingan itu, harga tiket kereta api antar kota turun menjadi $1.

The petroleum industry suffered from similar savage competition, and in the 1870’s, many oil industries failed.
Industri minyak menderita dari persaingan kejam yang sama, dan di tahun 1870-an, banyak industri minyak yang bangkrut.

1. The word “feverish” in line 1 is closest in meaning to
(A) extremely rapid
(B) sickly and slow
(C) very dangerous
(D) understandable

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(A) extremely rapid

2. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “critical” in line 2?
(A) Industrial
(B) Serious
(C) Crucial
(D) Insulting

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(C) Crucial

3. The phrase “the stage was set” in line 3 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
(A) The play was over.
(B) The progress continued.
(C) The foundation was laid.
(D) The direction was clear.

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(C) The foundation was laid.
set the scene/stage = mempersiapkan supaya sesuatu bisa terjadi = menyiapkan fondasi untuk sesuatu

4. The phrase “real estate” in line 5 refers to
(A) tools and machines
(B) actual income
(C) new enterprises
(D) land and buildings

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(D) land and buildings

5. The word “buttressed” in line 7 is closest in meaning to
(A) concerned
(B) supplemented
(C) restructured
(D) enriched

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(B) supplemented

6. The word “accommodating” in line lO is closest in meaning to
(A) persistent
(B) indifferent
(C) balanced
(D) helpful

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(D) helpful

7. Which of the following could best be substituted for the word “posture” in line 12?
(A) Stature
(B) Predicament
(C) Position
(D) Situation

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(C) Position

8. The word “prevailed” in line 15 is closest in meaning to
(A) influenced
(B) triumphed
(C) premiered
(D) evolved

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(B) triumphed

9. The phrase “left to its own devices” in lines 15-16 means
(A) forced to do additional work
(B) allowed to do as it pleased
(C) made to change its plans
(D) encouraged to produce more goods

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(B) allowed to do as it pleased
left to its own devices = bebas melakukan apa yang diinginkan

10. The word “vying” in line 18 is closest in meaning to
(A) competing
(B) hoping
(C) arranging
(D) caring

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(A) competing

11. The word “savage” in line 21 is closest in meaning to
(A) fierce
(B) growing
(C) surprising
(D) genuine

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(A) fierce
savage = kejam, sadis, bengis

1. The author’s main purpose in writing this passage was to
(A) criticize Georgia O’Keeffe’s style of painting
(B) discuss the early successes of an important American artist
(C) compare abstract art and landscape art
(D) give the highlights of Georgia O’Keeffe’s artistic career
Jawaban yang paling tepat (D)
Bacaan di atas menceritakan perjalanan karir seni Georgia O’Keeffe.

2. According to the article, where did Georgia O’Keeffe receive her formal art training?
(A) Sun Prairie, Wisconsin
(B) Chicago and New York
(C) Texas
(D) Taos, New Mexico
Jawaban yang paling tepat (B)
Line (1) She studied art in Chicago and New York from 1904 to 1908.
Kalimat di atas menjelaskan bahwa Geogia O’Keeffe menempuh pendidikan seni formal di Chicago dan New York.

3. The expression “that date” in line 4 refers to
(A) 1887
(B) 1908
(C) 1916
(D) 1918
Jawaban yang paling tepat (D)
Line (2) Beginning as an advertising illustrator, she supported herself until 1918 by teaching in various schools and colleges in Texas.
Line (4) After that date, she devoted herself entirely to painting.
Kalimat di atas menunjukkan bahwa ‘that date’ merujuk pada tahun 1918.

4. The word “frequented” in line 7 is closest in meaning to
(A) visited
(B) supported
(C) founded
(D) favored
Jawaban yang paling tepat (A)
frequent (verb) = mengunjungi suatu tempat

5. The word “intuitively” in line 13 is closest in meaning to
(A) deliberately
(B) defiantly
(C) instinctively
(D) instructively
Jawaban yang paling tepat (C)
intuitively = menggunakan perasaan / insting dibandingkan fakta

6. Which of the following had the greatest influence on changing O’Keeffe’s style of painting?
(A) A trip to the Southwest
(B) Alfred Steiglitz’s photographs
(C) Her job as an advertising illustrator
(D) Meeting influential artists
Jawaban yang paling tepat (A)
Line (15) O’Keeffe’s style changed dramatically in 1929 during a visit to New Mexico. She was enchanted by the stark but beautiful landscapes under the bright Southwestern sun,
Kalimat di atas menunjukkan bahwa pergantian gaya lukisan Georgia O’Keeffe dipengaruhi kunjungan ke New Mexico (Southwest)

7. The word “blanched” in line 19 is closest in meaning to
(A) shattered
(B) prominent
(C) whitened
(D) inexplicable
Jawaban yang paling tepat (C)
blanch (verb) = menjadi putih

8. Which of the following became the most common subject of O’Keeffe’s paintings after 1929?
(A) City scenes
(B) Desert scenes
(C) Flowers
(D) Abstract patterns
Jawaban yang paling tepat (B)
Line (18) Thereafter, she most often painted desert landscapes, often with the blanched skull of a longhorn in the foreground.
Kalimat di atas menunjukkan bahwa subyek lukisan yang paling sering digunakan oleh Georgia O’Keeffe setelah tahun 1929 adalah pemandangan gurun.

9. It can be inferred from the passage that, in her later years, O’Keeffe
(A) continued to be successful
(B) returned to New York City
(C) could not match the successes of her early career
(D) took up photography
Jawaban yang paling tepat (A)
Line (23) In her later years, she settled in Taos, New Mexico, becoming the dean of Southwestern painters and one of the best known of American artists.
Kalimat di atas menunjukkan bahwa di periode lanjut hidupnya, Georgia O’Keeffee tetap sukses.