TOEFL ITP Reading 09b Answer

The concepts of analogy and homology are probably easier to exemplify than to define.
Konsep analogi dan homologi mungkin lebih mudah dijelaskan dengan contoh daripada didefinisikan.

When different species are structurally compared, certain features can be described as either analogous or homologous.
Ketika spesies yang berbeda dibandingkan secara struktur, fitur tertentu bisa dijelaskan sebagai analog atau homolog.

For example, flight requires certain rigid aeronautical principles of design, yet birds, bats, and insects have all conquered the air.
Sebagai contoh, terbang memerlukan prinsip desain aeronautikal tertentu yang ketat, namun burung, kelelawar dan serangga semuanya menaklukkan udara.

The wings of all three types of animals derive from different embryological structures, but they perform the same functions.
Sayap semua ketiga jenis hewan itu berasal dari struktur embriologis yang berbeda, tapi mereka menjalankan fungsi yang sama.

In this case, the flight organs of these creatures can be said to be analogous.
Dalam hal ini, organ terbang dari makhluk-makhluk ini bisa dikatakan analog.

In contrast, features that arise from the same structures in the embryo but are used in different functions are said to be homologous.
Kontrasnya, fiture yang berasal dari struktur yang sama di embrio tapi digunakan dalam fungsi berbeda disebut homolog.

The pectoral fins of a fish, the wings of a bird, and the forelimbs of a mammal are all homologous structures.
Sirip dada ikan, sayap burung dan kaki depan mamalia semuanya dalah struktur homolog.

They are genetically related in the sense that both the forelimb and the wing evolved from the fin.
Mereka berhubungan secara genetis dalam arti kedua kaki depan dan sayar berevolusi dari sirip.

11. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
(A) A contrast is drawn between two concepts by means of examples.
(B) A general concept is introduced, examples are given, and a conclusion is offered.
(C) Two definitions of the same concept are compared.
(D) Two proposals are suggested and support for both is offered.

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(A) A contrast is drawn between two concepts by means of examples.
(Kontras dibuat antara dua konsep dengan cara contoh-contoh.)

Bacaan disusun dengan mengkontraskan konsep analog dan homolog melalui contoh.

12. According to the passage, the concepts of analogy and homology are
(A) difficult to understand
(B) easier to understand through examples than through definitions
(C) impossible to explain
(D) simple to define but hard to apply

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(B) easier to understand through examples than through definitions
(konsep analog dan homolog lebih mudah dipahami melalu contoh dibandingkan melalui definisi)

Ini bisa disimpulkan dari:
The concepts of analogy and homology are probably easier to exemplify than to define.
Konsep analogi dan homologi mungkin lebih mudah dijelaskan dengan contoh daripada didefinisikan.

13. The word “rigid” in line 4 is closest in meaning to
(A) inflexible
(B) ideal
(C) unnatural
(D) steep

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(A) inflexible
– rigid = inflexible = kaku, ketat, tidak mudah diganti, tidak fleksibel,
https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/rigid

14. According to the information provided in the passage, which of the following would most probably be considered analogous?
(A) A shark’s fin and a tiger’s claws
(B) A man’s arms and a bird’s wings
(C) A monkey’s tail and an elephant’s tail
(D) A spider’s legs and a horse’s legs

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(D) A spider’s legs and a horse’s legs
(kaki laba-laba dan kaki kuda)

Dari bacaan kita ketahui:
For example, flight requires certain rigid aeronautical principles of design, yet birds, bats, and insects have all conquered the air.
Sebagai contoh, terbang memerlukan prinsip desain aeronautikal tertentu yang ketat, namun burung, kelelawar dan serangga semuanya menaklukkan udara.

The wings of all three types of animals derive from different embryological structures, but they perform the same functions.
Sayap semua ketiga jenis hewan itu berasal dari struktur embriologis yang berbeda, tapi mereka menjalankan fungsi yang sama.

Dari pilihan di atas yang memiliki fungsi sama tapi berasal dari struktur embriologis yang berbeda adalah (D) A spider’s legs and a horse’s legs (kaki laba-laba dan kaki kuda)

15. According to the passage, one way in which homologous organs differ from analogous organs is that they
(A) are genetically related
(B) are only found in highly developed animals
(C) perform the same general functions
(D) come from different embryological structures

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(A) are genetically related

Kita bisa simpulkan bahwa organ homolog berhubungan secara genetis dari:
The pectoral fins of a fish, the wings of a bird, and the forelimbs of a mammal are all homologous structures.
Sirip dada ikan, sayap burung dan kaki depan mamalia semuanya dalah struktur homolog.

They are genetically related in the sense that both the forelimb and the wing evolved from the fin.
Mereka berhubungan secara genetis dalam arti kedua kaki depan dan sayar berevolusi dari sirip.

16. As used throughout the passage, the term “structures” most nearly means
(A) buildings
(B) features of an animal’s anatomy
(C) organizational principles
(D) units of grammar

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(B) features of an animal’s anatomy
(fitur anatomi hewan)

17. The word “sense” in line 13 is closest in meaning to
(A) feeling
(B) logic
(C) meaning
(D) perception

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(C) meaning
– sense = meaning = arti
https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/sense_1

18. Where in the passage does the author first focus his discussion on the concept of homology?
(A) Lines 2-4
(B) Lines 6-8
(C) Lines 9-11
(D) Lines 13-14

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(C) Lines 9-11

Konsep homologi dimulai dari Line 9
In contrast, features that arise from the same structures in the embryo but are used in different functions are said to be homologous.

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