TOEFL ITP Reading 10b Answer

The time when humans crossed the Arctic land bridge from Siberia to Alaska seems remote to us today,
Saat di mana manusia menyeberangi jembatan darat Arktik dari Siberia ke Alaskan terlihat sangat jauh dari kita saat ini,

but actually represents a late stage in the prehistory of humans,
tapi itu sebenarnya mewakili fate akhir manusia pra-sejarah,

an era when polished stone implements and bows and arrows were already being used,
sebuah zaman di mana batu asah sederhana dan busur dan anak panah sudah digunakan,

and dogs had already been domesticated.
dan anjing sudah dijinakkan.

When these early migrants arrived in North America, they found the woods and plains dominated by three types of American mammoths.
Ketika imigran awal ini tiba di Amerika Utara, mereka menemukan hutan dan dataran rendah yang didominasi tiga tipe mamut Amerika.

These elephants were distinguished from today’s elephants mainly by their thick, shaggy coats and their huge, upward-curving tusks.
Gajah-gajah ini berbeda dari gajah saat ini terutama dari bulunya yang tebal dan menjuntai dan gadingnya yang besar dan melengkung ke atas.

They had arrived on the continent hundreds of thousands of years before their human followers.
Mereka telah tiba di benua itu ratuan tahun sebelum manusia-manusia pengikut mereka.

The wooly mammoth in the North, the Columbian mammoth in middle North America, and the imperial mammoth of the South, together with their distant cousins the mastodons, dominated the land.
Mamut berbulu di Utara, mamut Kolombia di wilayah tengah Amerika Utara dan mamut imperial di Selatan, bersama dengan sepupu jauh mereka mastodon, mendominasi daratan.

Here, as in the Old World, there is evidence that humans hunted these elephants, as shown by the numerous spear points found with mammoth remains.
Di sini, maksudnya di Dunia Lama, ada bukti bahwa manusia memburu gajah-gajah ini, seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh banyaknya ujung tombak dengan sisa bangkai mamut.

Then, at the end of the Ice Age, when the last glaciers had retreated, there was a relatively sudden and widespread extinction of elephants.
Lalu, di akhir Zaman Es, ketika glasier terakhir menjauh, terjadi kepunahan gajah-gajah secara tiba-tiba dan merebak.

In the New World, both mammoths and mastodons disappeared.
Di Dunia Baru, baik mamut maupun mastodon lenyap.

In the Old World, only Indian and African elephants survived.
Di Dunia Lama, hanya gajah India dan Afrika yang bertahan.

Why did the huge, seemingly successful mammoths disappear?
Mengapa mamut yang begitu besar dan terlihat sukses lenyap?

Were humans connected with their extinction?
Apakah manusia terkait dengan kepunahan mereka?

Perhaps, but at that time, although they were cunning hunters, humans were still widely scattered and not very numerous.
Mungkin, tapi pada saat itu, meskipun mereka adalah pemburu yang cerdik, manusia masih sangat tersebar dan jumlah mereka tidak banyak

It is difficult to see how they could have prevailed over the mammoth to such an extent.
Sulit melihat bagaimana mereka bisa menang melawan mamut dengan keadaan seperti itu.

10. With which of the following is the passage primarily concerned’
(A) Migration from Siberia to Alaska
(B) Techniques used to hunt mammoths
(C) The prehistory of humans
(D) The relationship between man and mammoth in the New World

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(D) The relationship between man and mammoth in the New World
(hubungan antara manusia dan mamut di Dunia Baru)

11. The word “implements” in line 4 is closest in meaning to
(A) tools
(B) ornaments
(C) houses
(D) carvings

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(A) tools
– implement = tool = alat
https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/implement_2

12. The phrase “these early migrants” in line 6 refers to
(A) mammoths
(B) humans
(C) dogs
(D) mastodons

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(B) humans
(manusia)

Ini bisa disimpulkan dari:
The time when humans crossed the Arctic land bridge from Siberia to Alaska seems remote to us today,
Saat di mana manusia menyeberangi jembatan darat Arktik dari Siberia ke Alaskan terlihat sangat jauh dari kita saat ini,

…..

When these early migrants arrived in North America, they found the woods and plains dominated by three types of American mammoths.
Ketika imigran awal ini tiba di Amerika Utara, mereka menemukan hutan dan dataran rendah yang didominasi tiga tipe mamut Amerika.

13. Where were the imperial mammoths the dominant type of mammoth?
(A) In Alaska
(B) In the central portion of North America
(C) In the southern part of North America
(D) In South America

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(C) In the southern part of North America
(Dia bagian selatan dari Amerika Utara)

Ini bisa disimpulkan dari:
When these early migrants arrived in North America, they found the woods and plains dominated by three types of American mammoths.
Ketika imigran awal ini tiba di Amerika Utara, mereka menemukan hutan dan dataran rendah yang didominasi tiga tipe mamut Amerika.

….

The wooly mammoth in the North, the Columbian mammoth in middle North America, and the imperial mammoth of the South, together with their distant cousins the mastodons, dominated the land.
Mamut berbulu di Utara, mamut Kolombia di wilayah tengah Amerika Utara dan mamut imperial di Selatan, bersama dengan sepupu jauh mereka mastodon, mendominasi daratan.

– Bacaan ini menjelaskan bahwa manusia bermigrasi ke Amerika Utara dan menjumpai mamut
– Penjelasan selanjutnya menceritakan tipe mamut yang mendominasi di area Amerika Utara ini

14. It can be inferred that when humans crossed into the New World, they
(A) had previously hunted mammoths in Siberia
(B) had never seen mammoths before
(C) brought mammoths with them from the Old World
(D) soon learned to use dogs to hunt mammoths

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(A) had previously hunted mammoths in Siberia
(sebelumnya telah berburu mamot di Siberia)

Ini bisa disimpulkan dari:
The time when humans crossed the Arctic land bridge from Siberia to Alaska seems remote to us today,
Saat di mana manusia menyeberangi jembatan darat Arktik dari Siberia ke Alaskan terlihat sangat jauh dari kita saat ini,

– Dunia Lama = Siberia

Here, as in the Old World, there is evidence that humans hunted these elephants, as shown by the numerous spear points found with mammoth remains.
Di sini, maksudnya di Dunia Lama, ada bukti bahwa manusia memburu gajah-gajah ini, seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh banyaknya ujung tombak dengan sisa bangkai mamut.

– Di Dunia Lama, manusia sudah berburu gajah / mamut dengan adanya peninggalan bangkai mamut di ujung tombak mereka

15. Which of the following could best substitute for the word “remains” in line 17?
(A) Bones
(B) Drawings
(C) Footprints
(D) Spear points

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(A) Bones
– remains = bones = bangkai / jazad manusia atau hewan
https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/remains

16. The word “seemingly” in line 23 is closest in meaning to
(A) tremendously
(B) apparently
(C) formerly
(D) obviously

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(B) apparently
– seemingly = apparently = tampaknya
https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/seemingly
https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/apparently

17. The passage supports which of the following conclusions about mammoths?
(A) Humans hunted them to extinction.
(B) The freezing temperatures of the Ice Age destroyed their food supply.
(C) The cause of their extinction is not definitely known.
(D) Competition with mastodons caused them to become extinct.

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(C) The cause of their extinction is not definitely known.
(Penyebab kepunahan mamut tidak diketahui secara pasti)

18. The word “cunning” in line 25 is closest in meaning to
(A) clever
(B) determined
(C) efficient
(D) cautious

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(A) clever
– cunning = clever = cerdik, pintar
https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/cunning_1

19. Which of the following is NOT true about prehistoric humans at the time of the mammoths’ extinction?
(A) They were relatively few in number.
(B) They knew how to use bows and arrows.
(C) They were concentrated in a small area.
(D) They were skilled hunters.

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(C) They were concentrated in a small area.
(Mereka terkonsentrasi di satu wilayah kecil)

Dari bacaan kita simpulkan:
Were humans connected with their extinction?
Apakah manusia terkait dengan kepunahan mereka?

Perhaps, but at that time, although they were cunning hunters, humans were still widely scattered and not very numerous.
Mungkin, tapi pada saat itu, meskipun mereka adalah pemburu yang cerdik, manusia masih sangat tersebar dan jumlah mereka tidak banyak

– Jadi manusia tidak terkonsentrasi di satu titik tinggal.

20. Which of the following types of elephants does the author discuss in the most detail in the passage?
(A) The mastodon
(B) The mammoth
(C) The Indian elephant
(D) The African elephant

Jawaban yang tepat adalah
(B) The mammoth
(mamut)

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