TOEFL ITP Structure 03 Answer

1. Aerodynamics is the study of the forces ______ on an object as it moves through the atmosphere.
(A) acting
(B) act
(C) are acting
(D) acted

Jawaban yang paling tepat (A)
– Aerodynamics = subject
– is = verb
– the study of the forces = noun (object)
– Kalimat sudah lengkap karena sudah memiliki 1 subject dan 1 verb
– Ada verb (opsi jawaban A-D) setelah object noun => Pertanda relative clause (klausa tambahan yang menjelaskan subject / object)
– Relative clause = relative clause marker (who, whom, whose, which, that, where, when) + clause
– Di kalimat soal dan opsi jawaban tidak ada relative clause marker => reduced relative clause (relative clause yang disingkat)
– Reduced relative clause ada 2 tipe:
— Reduced relative clause with present participle (Verb ing) – jika klausa dalam bentuk kalimat aktif
Adam, who joined the club last year, has been awarded Player of the Month award.
Adam, joining the club last year, has been awarded Player of the Month award
— Reduced relative clause with past participle (Verb 3) – jika klausa dalam bentuk kalimat pasif
Adam, who was recruited by the club last year, has been awarded Player of the Month award.
Adam, recruited by the club last year, has been awarded Player of the Month award
– Potensi jawaban yang memungkinkan A (Verb ing) dan D (Verb 3)
– D salah karena kalau dimasukkan dan dijadika konteks kalimat pasif tidak tepat.
Aerodynamics is the study of the forces acting on an object as it moves through the atmosphere
Aerodynamics is the study of the forces which act on an object as it moves through the atmosphere.
Aerodinamika adalah studi tenaga yang bekerja pada sebuah obyek ketika dia bergerak melalui atmosfer.

2. _____ for their strong fiber include flax and hemp.
(A) Plants are grown
(B) Plants grown
(C) Plants that grow
(D) To grow plants

Jawaban yang paling tepat (B)
– include = verb
– Di pilihan jawaban soal A – D ada kata plants = noun, grow / grown = verb
– Ada 2 verb => compound sentence / complex sentence
– tidak ada coordinating conjunction, subordinating conjuction, tidak ada if/whether => reduced relative clause
– C dan D salah karena verb dalam reduced relative clause hanya bisa dalam bentuk Verb ing atau Verb 3
– A salah karena jika ‘are grown’ digunakan, harus ada relative clause marker which
Plants grown for their strong fiber include flax and hemp.
Plants which are grown for their strong fiber include flax and hemp.
Tanaman-tanaman yang dikembangkan untuk seratnya yang kuat termasuk rami dan hemp.

3. _____ , Jose Limon’s dance troupe often toured abroad.
(A) The U.S. State Department sponsored it
(B) Sponsored by the U.S. State Department
(C) The U.S. State Department, which sponsored it
(D) The sponsorship of the U.S. State Department

Jawaban yang paling tepat (B)
– Jose Limon’s dance troupe = subject
– toured = verb
– Di opsi jawaban A-D ada verb (sponsored) => ada 2 verb => compound sentence / complex sentence
– tidak ada coordinating conjunction, subordinating conjuction, tidak ada if/whether => reduced relative clause
– D salah karena dalam reduced relative clause harus ada Verb ing atau Verb 3
– A dan C salah karena dalam reduced relative clause tidak ada subject
Sponsored by the U.S. State Department, Jose Limon’s dance troupe often toured abroad.
Ini adalah bentuk lain dari:
Jose Limon’s dance troupe, sponsored by the U.S. State Department, often toured abroad.
Jose Limon’s dance troupe, which was sponsored by the U.S. State Department, often toured abroad.
Grup tari Jose Limon, yang disponsori oleh Departemen Luar Negeri Amerika Serikat, sering melakukan tur ke luar negeri.

4. Elfreth’s Alley in Philadelphia is the oldest residential street in the United States, with ______ from 1728.
(A) houses are dated
(B) the dates of the houses
(C) the dating of houses
(D) houses dating

Jawaban yang paling tepat (D)
– Elfreth’s Alley in Philadelphia = subject
– is = verb
– Di opsi jawaban dan noun (houses) dan verb (date) => ada 2 verb => compound sentence / complex sentence
– tidak ada coordinating conjunction, subordinating conjuction, tidak ada if/whether => reduced relative clause
– B salah karena dalam reduced relative clause harus ada Verb ing atau Verb 3
– A salah karena dalam reduced relative clause tidak ada verb be
– C salah karena posisi Verb ing atau Verb 3 setelah noun
Elfreth’s Alley in Philadelphia is the oldest residential street in the United States, with houses dating from 1728.
Elfreth’s Alley in Philadelphia is the oldest residential street in the United States, with houses which date from 1728.
Elfreth’s Alley di Philiadephia adalah jalan perumahan tertua di Amerika Serikat, dengan rumah-rumah yang sudah ada sejak tahun 1728.
date from (verb) = sudah ada sejak

5. In 1821 the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, was laid out in a design ______ after that of Washington, D.C.
(A) patterned
(B) was patterned
(C) a pattern
(D) that patterned

Jawaban yang paling tepat (A)
– Indiana = subject
– was laid out = verb
– a design = noun (object)
– Kalimat sudah lengkap karena sudah memiliki 1 subject dan 1 verb
– Dalam pilihan jawaban A-D ada variasi verb (patterned) setelah object noun => Pertanda relative clause
– Tidak ada relative clause marker => pertanda reduced relative clause
– B salah karena dalam reduced relative clause tidak ada verb be
– C salah karena dalam reduced relative clause setelah noun diikuti Verb ing atau Verb 3, (a pattern = noun)
– D salah karena relative clause marker that tidak diikuti verb be yang bisa membuatnya benar (that was patterned)
In 1821 the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, was laid out in a design patterned after that of Washington, D.C.
In 1821 the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, was laid out in a design which / that was patterned after that of Washington, D.C.
Pada tahun 1821, kota di Indianapolis, Indiana, dirancang dalam sebuah desain yang berpola seperti Washington DC.

6. _____ in front of a camera lens changes the color of the light that reaches the film.
(A) Placed a filter
(B) A filter is placed
(C) A filter placed
(D) When a filter placed

Jawaban yang paling tepat (C)
– camera lens = noun
– changes = verb
– Pilihan jawaban A-D ada subject (a filter) dan verb (placed)
– Ada 1 subject dan 2 verb
– Ada 2 verb => compound sentence / complex sentence
– tidak ada coordinating conjunction, subordinating conjuction, tidak ada if/whether => reduced relative clause
– A salah karena dalam reduced relative clause Verb 3 / Verb ing berada setelah subject / noun
– B salah karena dalam reduced relative clause tidak ada verb be
– D salah karena tidak ada relative pronoun sebelum subject / object noun di reduced relative clause
A filter placed in front of a camera lens changes the color of the light that reaches the film.
A filter which is placed in front of a camera lens changes the color of the light that reaches the film.
Sebuah filter yang diletakkan di depan lensa kamera mengubah warna cahaya yang sampai ke film.

7. The Massachusetts State House, _____ in 1798, was the most distinguished building in the United States at that time.
(A) completing
(B) which was completed
(C) was completed
(D) to be completed

Jawaban yang paling tepat (B)
– The Massachusetts State House = subject
– was = verb
– Pilihan jawaban A-D ada variasi verb (complete) => ada 1 subject dan 2 verb
– Ada 2 verb => compound sentence / complex sentence
– tidak ada coordinating conjunction, subordinating conjuction, tidak ada if/whether => relative clause atau reduced relative clause
– C salah karena kurang relative clause marker (which) untuk membuat klausa pasif yang utuh
– D salah karena kurang relative clause marker (which) dan bentuk be yang salah
– A salah karena dalam bentuk aktif (Verb ing), jika dimasukkan ke dalam kalimat soal menjadi tidak logis
The Massachusetts State House, which was completed in 1798, was the most distinguished building in the United States at that time.
Gedung Negara Bagian Massachusetts, yang diselesaikan pada tahun 1798, adalah bangunan yang paling dikagumi di Amerika Serikat waktu itu.

8. Barbara McClintock _____ for her discovery of the mobility of genetic elements.
(A) known
(B) who knows
(C) knowing
(D) is known

Jawaban yang paling tepat (D)
– Barbara McClintock = subject
– Tidak ada verb di potongan kalimat soal
– Hanya ada 1 verb di opsi pilihan jawaban A-D
– 1 subject + 1 verb => Kalimat sederhana (simple sentence)
– D salah karena known = Verb 3 dan tidak ada auxiliary verb yang mendahului (be / have)
– B salah karena ada relative clause marker (tidak diperlukan untuk simple sentence)
– C salah karena knowning = Verb ing dan tidak ada auxiliary verb yang mendahului (be)
Barbara McClintock is known for her discovery of the mobility of genetic elements.
Barbara McClintock dikenal akan penemuannya tentang mobilitas elemen genetika.

9. The solitary scientist ______ by himself has in many instances been replaced by a cooperative scientific team.
(A) to make important discoveries
(B) important discoveries were made
(C) has made important discoveries
(D) making important discoveries

Jawaban yang paling tepat (D)
– The solitary scientist = subject
– has … been replaced = verb
– Dalam opsi pilihan A-D ada variasi verb (make) => ada 1 subject dan 2 verb
– Ada 2 verb => compound sentence / complex sentence
– tidak ada coordinating conjunction, subordinating conjuction, tidak ada if/whether => relative clause
– tidak ada relative clause marker => reduced relative clause
– A salah karena dalam reduced relative clause verb dalam bentuk Verb ing atau Verb 3
– B salah karena dalam reduced relative clause tidak ada verb be
– C salah karena dalam reduced relative clause tidak ada verb be/auxiliary verb (have)
The solitary scientist making important discoveries by himself has in many instances been replaced by a cooperative scientific team.
The solitary scientist who made important discoveries by himself has in many instances been replaced by a cooperative scientific team.
Ilmuwan penyendiri yang membuat penemuan-penemuan penting seorang diri dalam banyak kejadian telah digantikan dengan tim ilmuwan yang berdasarkan kerja-sama.

10. Geometry is the branch of mathematics ______ the properties of lines, curves, shapes, and surfaces.
(A) that concerned with
(B) it is concerned with
(C) concerned with
(D) its concerns are

Jawaban yang paling tepat (C)
– Geometry = subject
– is = verb
– the branch of mathematics = noun (object)
– Pilihan jawaban A-D ada variasi verb (concern) => 1 subject 2 verb
– Ada 2 verb => compound sentence / complex sentence
– tidak ada coordinating conjunction, subordinating conjuction, tidak ada if/whether => relative clause
– tidak ada relative clause marker => reduced relative clause
– A, B dan D salah karena dalam reduced relative clause verb dalam bentuk Verb ing atau Verb 3 dan langsung mengikuti noun
Geometry is the branch of mathematics concerned with the properties of lines, curves, shapes, and surfaces.
Geometry is the branch of mathematics which is concerned with the properties of lines, curves, shapes, and surfaces.
Geometri adalah cabang matematika yang berhubungan dengan sifat garis, kurva, bentuk dan permukaan.

11. _____ an average of 471 inches of rain a year, Mount Waialeale in Hawaii is the wettest spot in the world.
(A) It receives
(B) Receiving
(C) To receive
(D) Received

Jawaban yang paling tepat (B)
– Mount Waialeale in Hawaii = subject
– is = verb
– Pilihan A-D ada variasi verb (receive) => 1 subject 2 verb
– Ada 2 verb => compound sentence / complex sentence
– tidak ada coordinating conjunction, subordinating conjuction, tidak ada if/whether => relative clause
– tidak ada relative clause marker => reduced relative clause
– A dan C salah karena dalam reduced relative clause verb hanya dalam bentuk Verb ing atau Verb 3
– B dan D bentuk verbnya benar secara grammar
– D salah karena jika dimasukkan ke kalimat soal, kalimatnya menjadi tidak logis
Receiving an average of 471 inches of rain a year, Mount Waialeale in Hawaii is the wettest spot in the world.
Setara dengan
Mount Waialeale in Hawaii, receiving an average of 471 inches of rain a year, is the wettest spot in the world.
Mount Waialeale in Hawaii, which receives an average of 471 inches of rain a year, is the wettest spot in the world.
Gunung Waialeale di Hawaii, yang menerima rata-rata 471 inci hujan setiap tahun, adalah tempat terbasah di dunia.

12. Amber is a hard, yellowish-brown _____ from the resin of pine trees that lived millions of years ago.
(A) substance formed
(B) to form a substance
(C) substance has formed
(D) forming a substance

Jawaban yang paling tepat (A)
– Amber = subject
– is = verb
– Pilihan A-D ada noun (substance) dan variasi verb (form) => 1 subject 2 verb
– Ada 2 verb => compound sentence / complex sentence
– tidak ada coordinating conjunction, subordinating conjuction, tidak ada if/whether => relative clause
– tidak ada relative clause marker => reduced relative clause
– B salah karena dalam reduced relative clause verb hanya dalam bentuk Verb ing atau Verb 3
– C salah karena dalam reduced relative clause tidak ada auxiliary verb (has)
– D salah karena dalam reduced relative clause Verb ing atau Verb 3 mengikuti noun, bukan mendahului
Amber is a hard, yellowish-brown substance formed from the resin of pine trees that lived millions of years ago.
Amber is a hard, yellowish-brown substance which was formed from the resin of pine trees that lived millions of years ago.
Ambar adalah bahan keras berwarna cokelat kekuningan yang terbentuk dari resin pohon cemara yang hidup jutaan tahun yang lalu.

13. The Democratic Party is older than the other major American political party, _____
(A) which the Republican party
(B) the Republican party
(C) it is the Republican party
(D) the Republican party is

Jawaban yang paling tepat (B)
– The Democratic Party = subject
– is = verb
– the other major American political party = noun (object)
– Pilihan A-D semuanya mengandung variasi dari penggunaan noun (the Republican party)
– Klausa sudah memiliki 1 subject 1 verb dan diakhiri noun => relative clause atau reduced relative clause
– A salah karena ada relative clause marker (which) tapi tidak ada verb be sebelum noun (the Republican party)
– C salah karena tidak memiliki relative clause marker atau verb dalam bentuk Verb ing atau Verb 3
– D salah karena tidak memiliki relative clause marker atau verb dalam bentuk Verb ing atau Verb 3
The Democratic Party is older than the other major American political party, the Republican party.
The Democratic Party is older than the other major American political party, which is the Republican party.
Partai Demokrat lebih tua dari partai politik besar lainnya di Amerika, yaitu Partai Republik.
Jika relative clause mengandung noun phrase (the Republican party), relative clause bisa diringkas menjadi reduced relative clause dengan menghilangkan relative clause marker (which) dan verb (is)

14. _____ relations with friends and acquaintances, play a major role in the social development of adolescents.
(A) What are called peer group relations are
(B) Peer group relations are
(C) Peer group relations, the
(D) By peer group relations, we mean

Jawaban yang paling tepat (C)
– relations with friends and acquaintances = noun (object)
– play = verb
– Pilihan A-D semuanya mengandung variasi dari penggunaan subject noun (peer group relations)
– Klausa sudah memiliki 1 verb dan 1 subject noun => relative clause
– A salah karena what bukan relative clause marker
– B salah karena tidak ada relative clause marker dan tidak ada Verb ing / Verb 3
– D salah karena tidak ada relative clause marker dan tidak ada Verb ing / Verb 3
Peer group relations, the relations with friends and acquaintances, play a major role in the social development of adolescents.
Ekuivalen dengan
The relations with friends and acquaintances, peer group relations, play a major role in the social development of adolescents.
The relations with friends and acquaintances, which are peer group relations, play a major role in the social development of adolescents.
Hubungan dengan teman-teman dan kenalan, yaitu relasi teman kelompok, berperan penting dalam perkembangan sosial orang-orang dewasa.

15. Joseph Henry, _____ first director of the Smithsonian Institute, was President Lincoln’s advisor on scientific matters.
(A) the
(B) to be the
(C) was the
(D) as the

Jawaban yang paling tepat (A)
– Joseph Henry = noun (subject)
– was = verb
– first director of the Smithsonian Institute = noun
– Pilihan A-D tidak ada relative clause marker => reduced relative clause
– Kalimat soal adalah contoh penggunan appositive: noun phrase yang menjelaskan noun phrase yang lain
– appositive = reduced relative clause (tanpa relative clause marker, tanpa verb, mengandung noun)
Joseph Henry, the first director of the Smithsonian Institute, was President Lincoln’s advisor on scientific matters.
Ekuivalen dengan
Joseph Henry, which was the first director of the Smithsonian Institute, was President Lincoln’s advisor on scientific matters.
Joseph Henry, yang adalah direktur pertama Institut Smithsonian, adalah penasehat Presiden Lincoln dalam hal-hal ilmiah.

16. The Wassatch Range, _____ extends from southeastern Idaho into northern Utah.
(A) which is a part of the Rocky Mountains,
(B) a part of the Rocky Mountains that
(C) is a part of the Rocky Mountains
(D) a part of the Rocky Mountains, it

Jawaban yang paling tepat (A)
– The Wassatch Range = subject (noun)
– extends = verb
– Subject noun atau object noun bisa dijelaskan oleh relative clause
– A adalah relative clause yang lengkap: ada relative clause marker (which) dan ada verb (is)
– B-D tidak ada relative clause marker, tidak ada Verb ing atau Verb 3 setelah noun yang dijelaskan atau noun phrase saja untuk menjelaskan subject noun
The Wassatch Range, which is a part of the Rocky Mountains, extends from southeastern Idaho into northern Utah
Wassatch Range, yang adalah bagian dari Pegunungan Rocky, membentang dari Idaho tenggara hingga Utah utara.
Ekuivalen dengan:
The Wassatch Range, a part of the Rocky Mountains, extends from southeastern Idaho into northern Utah
a part of the Rocky Mountains = appositive dari The Wassatch Range

17. _____ Ruth St. Dennis turned to Asian dances to find inspiration for her choreography.
(A) It was the dancer
(B) The dancer
(C) That the dancer
(D) The dancer was

Jawaban yang paling tepat (B)
– Ruth St. Dennis = noun (subject)
– turned = verb
– Pilihan jawaban A-D berisi variasi penggunan noun (the dancer)
– Ada 2 kemungkinan (1) relative clause untuk menjelaskan subject noun (2) appositive untuk menjelaskan subject noun
– A-D tidak ada relative clause marker, jadi opsi (1) tidak mungkin => tinggal opsi appositive
– Appositive hanya berisi noun phrase saja => B
The dancer Ruth St. Dennis turned to Asian dances to find inspiration for her choreography.
Ekuivalen dengan
Ruth St. Dennis, the dancer , turned to Asian dances to find inspiration for her choreography.
Ruth St. Dennis, which is the dancer , turned to Asian dances to find inspiration for her choreography.
Ruth St. Dennis, yang adalah penari, berpaling ke tari-tarian Asia untuk mencari inspirasi untuk koreografinya.

18. The organs of taste are the _____ which are mainly located on the tongue.
(A) groups of cells, are taste buds
(B) taste buds, are groups of cells
(C) taste buds, these are groups of cells
(D) taste buds, groups of cells

Jawaban yang paling tepat (D)
– The organs of taste = subject
– are = verb
– Pilihan A-D berisi variasi dari 2 noun phrase (tasts buds dan groups of cells)
– Noun phrase bisa dijelaskan oleh (1) relative clause atau (2) appositive (noun phrase lain)
– Pilihan A-D tidak ada relative marker => appositive (1 noun phrase menjelaskan noun phrase tanpa relative clause marker dan verb)
The organs of taste are the taste buds, groups of cells which are mainly located on the tongue.
Ekuivalen dengan
The organs of taste are the taste buds, which are groups of cells which are mainly located on the tongue.
Organ-organ perasa adalah pengecap pada lidah, yang adalah kelompok sel yang utamanya terletak di lidah.

19. In 1878 Frederick W Taylor invented a concept called scientific management, ______ of obtaining as much efficiency from workers and machines as possible.
(A) it is a method
(B) a method which
(C) a method
(D) called a method

Jawaban yang paling tepat (C)
– Frederick W Taylor = noun (subject)
– invented = verb
– scientific management = noun (object)
– Pilihan A-D adalah varisai penggunaan noun (a method) setelah object noun
– Noun phrase bisa dijelaskan oleh (1) relative clause atau (2) appositive (noun phrase lain)
– B salah karena relative clause marker harusnya berada di awal (langsung setelah noun object)
– A,B dan D salah karena tidak ada relative clause marker dan bukan appositive
In 1878 Frederick W Taylor invented a concept called scientific management, a method of obtaining as much efficiency from workers and machines as possible.
Ekuivalen dengan
In 1878 Frederick W Taylor invented a concept called scientific management, which was a method of obtaining as much efficiency from workers and machines as possible.
Pada tahun 1878 Frederick W Taylor menciptakan sebuah konsep yang disebut manajemen ilmiah, yang adalah sebuah metode untuk mendapatkan efisiensi sebanyak mungkin dari pekerja dan mesin.

20. A group of Shakers, _____ settled around Pleasant Hill, Kentucky, in 1805.
(A) members of a strict religious sect which
(B) whose members of a strict religious sect
(C) members of a strict religious sect,
(D) were members of a strict religious sect

Jawaban yang paling tepat (C)
– A group of Shakers = noun (subject)
– settled = verb
– Pilihan A-D adalah variasi penggunaan noun (members of a strict religious sect)
– Noun phrase bisa dijelaskan oleh (1) relative clause atau (2) appositive (noun phrase lain)
– A salah karena relative clause marker (which) tidak berada langsung setelah subject noun
– B salah karena ada relative clause marker (whose) tapi relative clausenya tidak memiliki verb (whose members of a strict religious sect = subject dari relative clause)
– D salah karena tidak ada relative clause marker dan ada verb
A group of Shakers, members of a strict religious sect, settled around Pleasant Hill, Kentucky, in 1805.
Ekuivalen dengan
A group of Shakers, which was members of a strict religious sect, settled around Pleasant Hill, Kentucky, in 1805.
Sekelompok Shakers, yang adalah anggota dari sebuah sekte agama yang ketat, bermukim di sekitar Bukit Pleasant, Kentucky pada tahun 1805.

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